Complete Omega-3Complete omega-3 contains three, not two, essential parts: 1) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA); 2) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); & 3) docosapentaenoic (DPA).
Superiority of Seal OilSeal oil is the best natural source of complete omega-3 containing EPA, DHA and DPA. The unique structure of seal oil offers improved digestion and absorption of omega-3.
Check for ApprovalsIt is important to look for approvals when choosing an omega-3 health supplement. Look for Health Canada (NPN), Canada Brand and other logos to ensure quality.
Advanced ManufacturingDPA GOLD Omega-3 is refined, bleached, cleansed with clay and fractionated to yield the world's best omega-3. Many seal oil products are only refined.
Research & Headlines
General Information About Omega-3 Essential Fatty Acids
Health Canada, the World Health Organization and the American Heart Association all recommend an increased daily intake of omega-3. That is because omega-3 is essential from infancy to old age for normal growth and development, but cannot be produced by the human body.
Omega-3 essential fatty acids are a group of polyunsaturated acids that include three essential parts: 1) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA); 2) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); & 3) docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). Omega-3 is deemed essential because it is necessary from infancy to old age, but cannot be produced by the human body.
All three omega-3 essential fatty acids circulate in the blood stream under normal conditions, but are lost through age. It is therefore important to supplement with an omega-3 product that contains all three omega-3 essential fatty acids (EPA, DHA and DPA).
Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA)
Numerous studies from various countries over extended time periods have documented that increased consumption of EPA appears to be associated with lower primary and secondary heart attack rates and death from cardiovascular disease, as well as reduced all-cause mortality (Kris-Etherton, et al., 2002) (He, et al., 2004).
A very strong inverse relationship between higher levels of EPA and reduced risk of sudden cardiac death has been reported in men without prior incidence of cardiovascular disease (Albert, et al., 2002). Furthermore, population studies also reveal a lower risk of coronary heart disease in those with higher levels of marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids in their bloodstream (Simon, et al., 1995). A 2003 study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition reported a 70% lower risk of fatal ischemic heart disease in those with higher levels of EPA and DHA in their blood stream, as compared to those with low levels (Lemaitre, et al., 2003).
Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA)
DHA is recognized as a physiologically-essential nutrient in the brain and retina for neuronal functioning and visual acuity, respectively (Youdin, 2000) (Holub, 2001). Large amounts of DHA are deposited during the prenatal and postnatal period into the lipid-rich neuronal tissues of the brain and retina during growth development. Furthermore, a continual delivery of DHA to the brain is needed throughout life to balance the continual turnover in cell membranes. Other omega-3 fatty acids such as alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) are found in only trace amounts in neural tissue regardless of the amounts consumed in the diet (Burdge, et al., 2002) (Burdge and Wooten, 2002) (Emken, et al., 1994).
A number of population studies have positively correlated the presence of DHA in breast milk with the accretion of DHA in the brain and enhanced intellectual development (Youdin, 2000) (Muskiet, et al., 2004). DHA intake and status during maternal nutrition and pregnancy has also been related to improve birth weight and head circumference of babies (Cunnane, et al., 2000). Infants consuming DHA exhibit a higher rate of brain and whole body DHA accumulation. Higher levels of DHA in the body have been positively correlated with better childhood intelligence and also improved cognitive function in old age (Whalley, et al., 2004).
Docosapentaenoic Acid (DPA)
Population studies have indicated that various Inuit groups including those living in Greenland and in northern Quebec (Nunavik) have a lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease-related mortality (Dyerberg and Bang, 1979) (Dewailly, et al., 2001). The Inuit consume considerable amounts of marine mammal oils (seal oil) containing DPA in addition to EPA and DHA in their traditional diet. All omega-3 fatty acids from marine mammal sources are considered to be readily incorporated into body tissues (Ackman, 1988). Interventional studies with seal oil supplementation (containing natural DPA in addition to EPA and DHA) have indicated a significant elevation in the circulating levels of all three omega-3 fatty acids (Conquer, et al., 1999). A 2011 study found considerable benefits offered by higher levels of DPA (Mozaffarian, et al., 2011).
The Kupio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study showed that men with higher levels of DPA plus DHA in their blood serum lipid had 44% reduced risk of acute coronary events (Rissanen, et al., 2000). Higher intakes of EPA, DHA and DPA as reflected in adipose tissue contents have been inversely associated with the risk of myocardial infarction (Pedersen, et al., 2000). Controlled human trial with seal oil supplementation have indicated, in some studies, a significant reduction in circulating plasma triglyceride levels (Bonefeld-Jorgensen, et al., 2001); elevated triglycerides are recognized as a significant risk factor for myocardial infarctions. Furthermore, seal oil supplementation in humans has been found to favourably increase EPA and DHA levels in serum phospholipids as associated with a lower risk of fatal ischemic events (Conquer, et al., 1999) (Lemaitre, et al., 2003). In one study, DPA was found to be up to 10 times as effective as EPA in stimulating the migration of endothelial cells (Kanayasu-Toyoda, et al., 1996).
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