- Division of Newborn Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
- Fetal-Neonatal Neuroimaging and Developmental Science Center, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
- Department of Radiology, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
- Department of Neonatology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
- Beckman Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.
- Abbott Nutrition, Columbus, OH 43219, USA.
- Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.
Maternal nutrition is an important factor for infant neurodevelopment. However, prior magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies on maternal nutrients and infant brain have focused mostly on preterm infants or on few specific nutrients and few specific brain regions. We present a first study in term-born infants, comprehensively correlating 73 maternal nutrients with infant brain morphometry at the regional (61 regions) and voxel (over 300 000 voxel) levels. Both maternal nutrition intake diaries and infant MRI were collected at 1 month of life (0.9 ± 0.5 months) for 92 term-born infants (among them, 54 infants were purely breastfed and 19 were breastfed most of the time). Intake of nutrients was assessed via standardized food frequency questionnaire. No nutrient was significantly correlated with any of the volumes of the 61 autosegmented brain regions. However, increased volumes within subregions of the frontal cortex and corpus callosum at the voxel level were positively correlated with maternal intake of omega-3 fatty acids, retinol (vitamin A) and vitamin B12, both with and without correction for postmenstrual age and sex (P < 0.05, q < 0.05 after false discovery rate correction). Omega-3 fatty acids remained significantly correlated with infant brain volumes after subsetting to the 54 infants who were exclusively breastfed, but retinol and vitamin B12 did not. This provides an impetus for future larger studies to better characterize the effect size of dietary variation and correlation with neurodevelopmental outcomes, which can lead to improved nutritional guidance during pregnancy and lactation.
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