Gaetan Drouin, Vincent Rioux, Philippe Legrand
Laboratory of Biochemistry and Human Nutrition, Agrocampus Ouest, Rennes, F-35042, France
Present in food sources (editor's note: rich in seal oil), as well as in human milk, dietary n-3 DPA is of current interest both for its ability to increase EPA and DHA tissue status and for its specific or shared biological effects. Indeed, some evidence showed that dietary n-3 DPA is a source of EPA and slightly DHA in the major metabolic organs. n-3 DPA is also the precursor of a large panel of lipid mediators (protectins, resolvins, maresins, isoprostanes) principally implicated in the pro-resolution of the inflammation with specific effects compared to the other n-3 LCPUFA (long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids). Recent results showed that n-3 DPA is implied in the improvement of cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk markers, especially plasma lipid parameters, platelet aggregation, cellular plasticity. Moreover, n-3 DPA is the most abundant n-3 LCPUFA in the brain after DHA and it could be specifically beneficial for elderly neuroprotection, and early-life development. These results led to the development of two drugs specifically containing n-3 DPA.