Nutrition is a key factor in determining exercise response. The aim of this review is to assess the response to exercise in older adults who take supplements of antioxidants and/or omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.
A systematic literature search was performed (June 2009- September 2019) in MEDLINE via Pubmed. The following search strategy was used with Boolean markers: ("omega-3 fatty acids" [Major] OR "antioxidants" [Major]) AND "exercise" AND "aged" [MesH]. Fourteen articles were finally included.
Exercise-induced free radical and inflammatory marker blood levels, but not changed the plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC), after administration of antioxidant supplement. The oral administration of antioxidants produced null or negative effect on endothelial function, but the infusion into the brachial artery during rhythmic handgrip exercise produced a significant improvement in muscle blood flow, due to an on increase in the availability of nitric acid derived from the nitric oxide synthase. Aerobic exercise and antioxidant supplementation improved submaximal and maximal aerobic parameters, as well as mitochondrial density and mitochondria-regulated apoptotic signaling. Antioxidant supplementation, but not omega-3 PUFA, decreased pro-inflammatory marker levels and fat oxidation induced by exercise. Strength training decreased serum B12 concentration but combined with omega-3 PUFA or antioxidant supplementation, B12 levels were maintained. Antioxidant supplementation has protective effect after fatigue in isometric exercise but improved appendicular fat-free mass just combined with resistance exercise. Omega-3 fatty acid supplement combined with exercise increased lean mass in women, but not in men. Muscle damage induced by exercise is protected by antioxidant supplementation.
Older people who take antioxidant and/or omega-3 PUFA supplements showed improved exercise response, as well as lower muscle damage.
Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier Inc.
antioxidant; exercise; muscle damage; older adults; omega-3 fatty acids